Equilibrium charge-state fractions of energetic deuterium ions and atoms emerging from alkaline-earth (magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium) vapor targets are reported in the range of 0.3- to 3-keV incident D+ energy. Deuterium negative-ion production in thick barium and calcium vapor targets equals similar production in cesium vapor (34%). Moreover, the maximum D- production in strontium vapor exceeds that for all other known gas or vapor targets and reaches 50% at 500 eV. Theory does not quantitatively describe these results, although ab initio molecular-interaction-energy calculations on the neutral and negative-ion CaH systems lead to the prediction of large D- yields at low energies. The theoretical prediction is based on the lack of a strong coupling between the negative ion and neutral molecular states. This implies that there are small D- electron-detachment cross sections at energies less than 1 keV. The present measurements agree with previous measurements done at higher energies. © 1982 The American Physical Society.
R. H. McFarland et al., "D- Production By Charge Transfer Of (0.3 - 3)-keV D+ In Thick Alkaline-earth Vapor Targets: Interaction Energies For CaH+, CaH, And CaH-," Physical Review A, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 775 - 785, American Physical Society, Jan 1982.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.26.775
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01 Jan 1982