Optical absorption spectra were obtained after reducing (i.e., vacuum annealing) a series of LiNbO3 crystals grown from melts having various Mg concentrations and Li/Nb ratios. A band peaking at 500 nm, and assigned to oxygen vacancies containing two electrons, was the only absorption present in one set of crystals following reduction. In contrast, two overlapping bands peaking near 1200 and 760 nm were present in the other set of crystals immediately after the reduction. The 1200-nm band is assigned to a previously unreported electron trap and the 760-nm band to oxygen vacancies containing only one electron. These data are interpreted in terms of a threshold level for Mg doping; however, the threshold Mg doping level is not a constant but depends on the ratio of Mg ions to Li vacancies.
K. L. Sweeney et al., "Threshold Effect In Mg-doped Lithium Niobate," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 805 - 807, American Institute of Physics, Dec 1984.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1063/1.95372
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01 Dec 1984