The radiation-induced transformation from crystalline to amorphous silicon was studied using ion implantation. The ion energy was varied from 20 to 180 keV for Li+, N+, Ne+, Ar+, and Kr +. The energy dependence of the critical amorphizing dose was determined by electron spin resonance. Comparison of the data with theoretical calculations of the energy density deposited into atomic processes showed good agreement. This energy-dependent agreement gave evidence that energy density is important to the transformation at both low and high implantation temperatures.
J. R. Dennis and E. B. Hale, "Energy Dependence Of Amorphizing Implant Dose In Silicon," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 523 - 524, American Institute of Physics, Dec 1976.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1063/1.89170
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01 Dec 1976