Bifurcated Three-Dimensional Forced Convection in Plane Symmetric Sudden Expansion


Simulations of bifurcated three-dimensional laminar forced convection in horizontal duct with plane symmetric sudden expansion are presented to illustrate the effects of flow bifurcations on temperature and heat transfer distributions. The stable bifurcated flow that develops in this symmetric geometry leads to non-symmetric temperature and heat transfer distributions in the transverse direction, but symmetric distributions with respect to the center width of the duct in the spanwise directions for the Reynolds number of 400-800. A strong downwash develops at the corner of the step and a smaller reverse flow region develops adjacent to the lower stepped wall than the one that develops adjacent to the upper stepped wall. The downwash and the “jet-like” flow that develop near the sidewall create a strong swirling spanwise flow in the primary recirculating flow regions downstream from the sudden expansion. The magnitude of maximum Nusselt number that develops on the lower stepped walls is higher than the one that develops on the upper stepped wall. The locations of these maximum Nusselt numbers on the stepped walls are near the sidewalls and are upstream of the “jet-like” flow impingement regions. Results reveal that the locations where the streamwise component of wall shear stress is zero on the stepped walls do not coincide with the outer edge of the recirculation flow region near the sidewalls. Velocity, temperature, Nusselt number, and friction coefficient distributions are presented.


Mining Engineering

Second Department

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Bifurcated; Horizontal Duct; Laminar; Sudden Expansion

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2005 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2005