Understanding How Speed, Tractive Effort, Digging Height, and Rake Angle Affect Bucket Penetration and Resistive Forces for Rubber Tire Loaders


This work evaluated the effect of bucket orientation and operating parameters on resistive forces and penetration for rubber tire loaders. The work used a 1:16 scale LHD model to test a rubber tire loader (RTL) bucket operating at different levels of tractive effort, speed, digging height, and rake angles in a full factorial design experiment. The work repeated the test on two different muck piles with different particle sizes and used generalized regression modeling to test the association of rake angle, tractive effort, speed, and digging height on penetration and resistive forces for RTL buckets. The results show that speed and tractive effort are more important in explaining RTL penetration and resistive forces than height above the floor and rake angle. Speed, tractive effort, and height above the floor are positively correlated to bucket penetration, whereas the rake angle is negatively correlated to penetration. Similarly, speed, tractive effort, rake angle, and height above the floor are all positively correlated to resistive forces incurred during initial penetration. The observation that the combined effect of speed and tractive effort is negatively correlated to penetration and resistive forces is a novel contribution that enhances our understanding of RTL loading. The results also show that the effect of speed, tractive effort, and height above the floor all change with changes in particle sizes. This work adds to the literature on the effect of rake angle, height above the floor, tractive effort, and speed on penetration and resistive forces for rubber tire loaders.


Mining Engineering


This study received funding from Komatsu Mining Corps, Longview, Texas.

Keywords and Phrases

Digging height; Penetration; Rake angle; Resistive force; Rubber tire loader; Speed

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2524-3462; 2524-3470

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Oct 2020