Research and Application of Non-Traditional Chemical Stabilizers on Bauxite Residue (Red Sand) Dust Control, a Review


Bauxite residue is a by-product of aluminium processing. It is usually stored in large-scale residue drying area (RDA). The bauxite residue is highly alkaline and contains a large percentage of metal oxides which are hazardous to the environment and human health. Therefore, the generated dust is a major environmental concern that needs to be addressed and efficiently managed. One of the major dust generation sources is from the coarse fraction of the bauxite residue named red sand. To minimize the environmental and health impacts, non-traditional chemical stabilizers can be applied to construct a binding surface crust with certain hardness and strength. Dust emission is reduced due to the increased moisture retention capacity and strong cohesion between sand particles. There are limited number of refereed publications that discuss the application of this method to alleviate dust generation from red sand. By critically reviewing the literature and the application of non-traditional chemical stabilizers to sand-like materials in other fields, this paper introduces some non-traditional chemical stabilizers that can be potentially used for controlling red sand dust. Commonly used evaluation methods in various studies are compared and summarized; the stabilization mechanisms are examined; and the performance of three types of stabilizers are compared and evaluated. This review potentially serves as a reference and guide for further studies in red sand dust control. The findings are especially useful for developing suitable quantitative methods for evaluating the dust suppression efficiency of soil stabilizers, and for determining the appropriate additive quantities that achieve both economic and performance effectiveness.


Mining Engineering


This project is supported by Independent Research Projects of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, CUMT (SKLCRSM15KF01), the Excellent Innovative Project fund from China University of Mining and Technology (project no. 2014ZY004), and the Mining Education Australia Collaborative Research Grant Scheme (2015).

Keywords and Phrases

Alkalinity; Dust control; Mechanical testing; Polymers; Resins; Aluminium processing; Chemical stabilizers; Environmental concerns; Lignosulfonates; Moisture retention capacity; Quantitative method; Research and application; Stabilization mechanisms; Sand; Polymer; Rain; Sulfonic acid derivative; Unclassified drug; Bauxite; Dust; Erosion; Literature review; Polymer; Resin; Sand; Simulation; Bauxite residue; Compressive strength; Dust; Environmental erosion; Laboratory test; Molecular stability; Physical resistance; Priority journal; Research; Review; Shear strength; Wind; Erosion simulations; Mechanical tests; Sand-type materials

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0048-9697; 1879-1026

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2018 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Mar 2018