Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing process recently developed for fabricating dense, functional ceramic components. This paper presents a further development of this process and focuses on fabricating 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3YSZ) components that cannot be fabricated without using support structures. The 3YSZ paste is deposited through the main nozzle, and a polycaprolactone (PCL) pellet feedstock is melted and deposited through an auxiliary nozzle to build support structures. After a green part is printed and dried, the support structures are removed by heating the part to ~70 ⁰C to melt the PCL. The part is then sintered at 1550 ⁰C to achieve near theoretical density. The maximum angle of overhanging feature that can be fabricated without support was determined to be 60⁰. Sample parts were fabricated and evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PCL support material and CODE's capability to fabricate geometrically complex parts.

Meeting Name

28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2017 (2017: Aug. 7-9, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy under the grant number DE-FE0012272.

Keywords and Phrases

Additives; Ceramics industry; Extrusion; Ground supports; Nozzles; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Additive manufacturing process; Complex parts; Extrusion process; Functional ceramics; On demands; Support materials; Support structures; Theoretical density, Fabrication

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

09 Aug 2017