Die casting dies made of tool steel is subject to impact, abrasion and cyclic thermomechanical loading that delivers damage such as wear, corrosion, and cracking. To repair such defects, materials enveloping the damage need to be machined and refilled. In this study, V-shape defects with varied sidewall inclination angles were prepared on H13 tool steel substrates and refilled with cobalt-based alloy using direct metal deposition (DMD) for superior hardness and wear resistance. The microstructure of rebuild samples was characterized using an optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elemental distribution from the substrate to deposits was analyzed using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Mechanical properties of repaired samples were evaluated by tensile test and microhardness measurement. Fracture mechanism in tensile testing was analyzed by observing the fracture surface. The experiment reveals that V-shape defects with sidewall beyond certain angles can be successfully remanufactured. The deposits were fully dense and free of defects. The microstructure and tensile test confirm the solid bonding along the interface. The tensile test shows the mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of repaired samples is approximated 620 MPa, where samples fractured at the deposits region. Hardness measurement reveals the hardness of deposits is around 810 HV which is much higher than that of the substrate.

Meeting Name

29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018 (2018: Aug. 13-15, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This project was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1547042 and CMMI-1625736, and the Intelligent Systems Center, Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies, and Material Research Center at Missouri S&T. Their financial support is greatly appreciated.

Keywords and Phrases

Direct metal deposition; Repair; Co-based alloy; Tool steel

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

15 Aug 2018

Included in

Manufacturing Commons