Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) is a viable method for estimating the ductility, yield stress, and ultimate stress, among other metrics, in different metallic materials. Currently, ABI data analysis utilizes Holloman’s Power Law to model the plastic region of the true stress-true strain curve. While this formulation is accurate for some materials, its relevance for additively manufactured austenitic stainless steels, such as 304L, needed investigation. The deviation of the material’s plastic behavior from the Power Law was investigated. In order to better model this behavior, both the Voce and Ludwigson formulation were investigated. These formulations were tested for both wrought and additively manufactured 304L stainless steel. Regression analysis was used to choose the appropriate fit. The chosen formulation was then used to generate a material model to simulate the ABI process. These simulations were validated through experimental analysis.

Meeting Name

29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018 (2018: Aug. 13-15, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This work has been funded by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies under Contract No. DE-NA0002839 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The supports from National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1625736, and the Intelligent Systems Center (ISC) at Missouri S&T are greatly appreciated.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

15 Aug 2018

Included in

Manufacturing Commons