In this study, pulse‐width modulation of laser power was identified as a feasible means for varying the chemical gradient in copper—nickel‐graded materials. Graded material deposits of 70 wt. %. copper‐30 wt. %. nickel on 100 wt. %. nickel and vice versa were deposited and characterized. The 70/30 copper—nickel weight ratio in the feedstock powder was achieved through blending elemental copper and 96 wt. %. Ni—Delero‐22 alloy. At the dissimilar material interface over the course of four layers, the duty cycle of power was ramped down from a high value to optimized deposition conditions. This change was theorized to influence the remelting and deposition height, and by extension, vary the chemistry gradient. X‐ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed significant differences in the span and nature of chemistry gradient with varying duty cycles. These observations were also supported by the variation in microhardness values across the interface. The influence of different chemistry gradients on the tensile performance was observed through mini‐tensile testing, coupled with Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The strain fields from the DIC analysis showed variations in strain for different chemistry gradients. The strength measurements from these specimens were also different for different chemistry gradients. The site of failure was observed to always occur within the copper-rich region.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Blended elemental powders; Digital image correlation; Functionally graded materials; Laser metal deposition; Miniature tensile testing; X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

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© 2019 The Author(s) , All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Mar 2019