Additive Manufacturing of Zr-Based Metallic Glass Structures on 304 Stainless Steel Substrates Via V/Ti/Zr Intermediate Layers


Welding of dissimilar metals is challenging, particularly between crystalline metals and metallic glasses (MGs). In this study, Zr65.7Cu15.6Ni11.7Al3.7Ti3.3 (wt%) MG structures were built on 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by laser-foil-printing (LFP) additive manufacturing technology in which MG foils were laser welded layer-by-layer onto the SS substrate with a transition route, i.e., SS → V → Ti → Zr → MG. The direct welding of MG on SS would lead to the formation of various brittle intermetallics and the consequent peeling off of the welded MG foils from the SS substrate, which could be resolved via the use of V/Ti/Zr intermediate layers. The chemical composition, formed phases, and micro-hardness were characterized in the dissimilar joints by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-indentation. Since the intermediate materials were highly compatible with the base metals or the adjacent intermediate metals, undesirable intermetallics were not detected in the dissimilar joint. The bonding tensile strength between the SS substrate and the MG part with intermediate layers was measured about 477 MPa.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This work was supported by the Department of Energy [Grant no. DE-FE0012272 ] and the University of Missouri System [Award no. FastTrack-16002R ].

Keywords and Phrases

3D printers; Aluminum alloys; Chemical bonds; Copper alloys; Deposition; Dissimilar metals; Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Glass; Intermetallics; Metallic glass; Microhardness; Stainless steel; Structures (built objects); Substrates; Tensile strength; Titanium; Titanium alloys; Welding; Zirconium alloys; 304 stainless steel; Additive manufacturing technology; Chemical compositions; Crystalline metals; Intermediate layers; Intermediate materials; Micro indentation; Zr-based metallic glass; Austenitic stainless steel; Additive manufacturing; Dissimilar metals welding

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Article - Journal

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© 2018 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2018