Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is an effective process to fabricate Functionally Graded Material (FGM) from pre-mixed powders. Since the supplied multi-powder directly affects the deposited FGM’s composition, investigation on Pre-Mixed Multi-Powder (PMMP) flow during LMD is greatly needed. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical PMMP flow model. By solving discrete particle force balance equations coupled with continuity equations and momentum equations for carrier gas, the dynamic behavior of PMMP flow through powder feeder tube and out of nozzle was calculated. With this model, the particle sizes of multi-powder were optimized to obtain considered FGM composition. To verify the modeling results, pre-mixed Cu and 4047 Al powder was transported and patterned in an epoxy resin coating after exiting nozzle. The distribution of exiting pre-mixed powder was plotted by quantifying the different color area. The gathered distribution data was used to estimate the exiting pre-mixed powder’s com-position, and finally validate modeling results.

Meeting Name

27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference (2016: Aug. 8-10, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Functionally Gradient Material; Pre-Mixed Multi-Powder; FGM composition; Numerical modeling

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

10 Aug 2016