Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing technique that extrudes ceramic loaded aqueous pastes layer by layer below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication. A computer controlled 3-D gantry system has been developed for the FEF process. The system includes a temperature control subsystem that allows for fabrication of components below the paste freezing temperature. The low temperature environment allows for larger component fabrication. Comparisons in terms of layer thickness, self-sustaining ability, and system response were performed between 0⁰C and -20⁰C for alumina sample fabrications. The minimum deposition angles without use of support material have been determined for 20⁰C, 10⁰C, 0⁰C, -10⁰C and -20⁰C fabrications.

Meeting Name

18th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (2007: Aug. 6-8, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering


This work was supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory under Contract FA8650- 04-C-5704.

Keywords and Phrases

3D printers; Alumina; Extrusion; Freezing; Additive Manufacturing; Deposition angle; Effect of environments; Experimental investigations; Freezing temperatures; Layer thickness; Low temperature environment; Support materials; Fabrication

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

08 Aug 2007