Freeform Extrusion Fabrication of Titanium Fiber Resuborced -93 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds


Although implants made with bioactive glass have shown promising results for bone repair, their application in repairing load-bearing long bone is limited due to their poor mechanical properties in comparison to human bone. This work investigates the freeform extrusion fabrication of bioactive silicate -93 glass scaffolds resuborced with titanium (Ti) fibers. A composite paste prepared with -93 glass and Ti fibers (~16 μm in diameter and lengths varying from~200 μm to~2 mm) was extruded through a nozzle to fabricate scaffolds (0–90⁰ filament orientation pattern) on a heated plate. The sintered scaffolds measured pore sizes ranging from 400 to 800 μm and a porosity of~50%. Scaffolds with 0.4 vol% Ti fibers measured fracture toughness of~0.8 MPa m1/2 and a flexural strength of~15 MPa. -93 glass scaffolds without Ti fibers had a toughness of~0.5 MPa m1/2 and a strength of~10 MPa. The addition of Ti fibers increased the fracture toughness of the scaffolds by~70% and flexural strength by~40%. The scaffolds' biocompatibility and their degradation in mechanical properties in vitro were assessed by immersing the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid over a period of one to four weeks.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Bone tissue repair; Metal fiber resuborced glass composite; Scaffold degradation; Titanium fiber -93 bioactive glass; Bearings (machine parts); Bending strength; Biocompatibility; Bone; Extrusion; Fibers; Fracture toughness; Mechanical properties; Melt spinning; Metal implants; Pore size; Resuborced plastics; Resuborcemen; tRepair

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2017 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2017