Measurement of Aircraft Engine Non-Volatile PM Emissions: Results of the Aviation-Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 Campaign


This study reports the first of a kind data on aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) number- and mass-based emissions using standardized systems. Two compliant sampling and measurement systems operated by Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) and Empa were evaluated during the Aviation - Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 campaign at the SR Technics facilities in Zürich, Switzerland, in November 2012. The Missouri S&T and Empa systems were compared during a series of dedicated engine tests using a CFM56-5B4/2P engine source, and maintenance engine testing using CFM56-7B24/3 and PW4168A engine sources at a range of engine operating conditions. These two compliant systems were found to agree within 6% of each other in terms of nvPM number-based emissions, and within 15% for nvPM mass-based emissions. For the three engine sources studied, at several engine power conditions the mass instruments approached their limit of detection, resulting in high measurement uncertainties. Ancillary instrumentation was used to determine PM size distributions, chemical composition, and effective density from mass-mobility experiments. Particle geometric mean mobility diameter ranged 20-45 nm, and geometric standard deviation varied from 1.55 to 1.9 for the three engine types studied. The fraction of PM organic content measured in the emissions from the CFM56-5B4/2P engine was ~4% while the size-dependent particle effective density was parameterized with a mass-mobility exponent of 2.57 and a pre-factor of 0.606. Results of this study will contribute to the development of the new nvPM emissions certification standard and emissions inventories from commercial aviation operations.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department


Third Department



This work was separately funded by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), and Transport Canada (TC). FAA funding was provided through the Partnership for AiR Transportation for Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER) – a FAA-NASA-Transport Canada-US DoD-US EPA-sponsored Center of Excellence under Grant No. 09-C-NE-MST Amendments 008 and 015 (Carl Ma, project manager). FOCA funding was provided through the project “Particulate Matter and Gas Phase Emission Measurement of Aircraft Engine Exhaust.” TC funding was provided through the Clean Transportation Initiative. In-kind cost contribution for this project was provided by the European Aviation Safety Agency.

Keywords and Phrases

Aircraft Engines; Particulate Emissions; Research Aircraft; Uncertainty Analysis, Certification Standards; Chemical Compositions; Emissions Inventory; Engine Operating Conditions; Geometric Standard Deviations; Limit Of Detection; Measurement Uncertainty; Science And Technology, Engines, Hydrogen; Naphthalene Derivative; Sulfur, Air Sampling; Aircraft; Article; Aviation; Certification; Chemical Composition; Combustion; Density; Distillation; Environmental Temperature; Geometry; Heat; Limit Of Detection; Particulate Matter; Priority Journal; Smoke; Uncertainty; Viscosity

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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Publication Date

01 Jul 2015