Numerous investigators have explored the factors that contribute to the high electromechanical performance of stress-biased actuators with particular attention being given to the importance of the extrinsic (domain wall translation) response mechanism. Based on the variation in lateral stress through the thickness of the piezoelectric layer within these devices, it has been suggested that the piezoelectric coefficient varies as a function of position within the layer, though no direct evidence has been previously presented. In this study, the results of Moire interferometry investigations of local strains within these devices are reviewed. The technique permits effective depth-profiling of local deformations at reasonably high (0.25 µm) resolution. A least squares regression analysis approach was used in conjunction with classical laminate theory and free edge effects to fit this experimental data to depth-dependent piezoelectric response. As expected, higher d-coefficients were predicted for the upper free surface of the device compared to the interface with the stainless steel substrate. The predicted values were in general agreement with expectation and are further considered from the perspective of recent reports in the literature regarding multi-axial loading effects on the electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics.

Meeting Name

14th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, 2004


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

0.25 Mum; Moire Interferometry; PZT; PbZrO3TiO3; Classical Laminate Theory; Curve Fitting; D-Coefficients; Depth-Dependent Piezoelectric Response; Elastic Deformation; Electric Domain Walls; Free Edge Effects; Internal Stresses; Lead Compounds; Lead Zirconate Titanate-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics; Least Squares Approximations; Least Squares Regression Analysis; Light Interferometry; Local Deformation Depth-Profiling; Local Electromechanical Response; Local Strain; Multiaxial Loading Effects; Piezoceramics; Piezoelectric Actuators; Piezoelectricity; Regression Analysis; Stainless Steel Substrate; Stress-Biased Piezoelectric Actuators; Zirconium Compounds

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2004 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2004