Weld Pool Dynamics and the Formation of Ripples in 3D Gas Metal Arc Welding


This article studies the transient weld pool dynamics under the periodical impingement of filler droplets that carry mass, momentum, thermal energy, and species in a moving 3D gas metal arc welding. The complicated transport phenomena in the weld pool are caused by the combined effect of droplet impingement, gravity, electromagnetic force, plasma arc force, and surface tension force (Marangoni effect). The weld pool shape and the distributions of temperature, velocity, and species in the weld pool are calculated as a function of time. The phenomena of “open and close-up” for a crater in the weld pool and the corresponding weld pool dynamics are analyzed. The commonly observed ripples at the surface of a solidified weld bead are, for the first time, predicted by the present model. Detailed mechanisms leading to the formation of ripples are discussed.

Meeting Name

2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007 (2007: Nov. 11-15, Seattle, WA)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

3-D Welding; Marangoni Effect; Three Dimensional Welding; Welding Techniques

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 2007 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

15 Nov 2007

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