Numerical Modeling of Keyhole Dynamics in Laser Welding


Mathematical models and the associated numerical techniques have been developed to study the following cases: 1) the formation and collapse of a keyhole, 2) the formation of porosity and its control strategies, 3) laser welding with filler metals, and 4) the escape of zinc vapor in laser welding of galvanized steel. The simulation results show that the formation of porosity in the weld is caused by two competing mechanisms: one is the solidification rate of the molten metal and the other is the speed that molten metal backfills the keyhole after laser energy is terminated. The models have demonstrated that porosity can be reduced or eliminated by adding filler metals, controlling laser tailing power, or applying an electromagnetic force during keyhole collapse process. It is found that a uniform composition of weld pool is difficult to achieve by filler metals due to very rapid solidification of the weld pool in laser welding, as compared to that in gas metal arc welding.

Meeting Name

First International Symposium on High-Power laser Macroprocessing


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


The Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exp.
United States. Air Force. Office of Scientific Research
The Kao Foundation for Arts and Sciences
The Asahi Glass Foundation

Keywords and Phrases

Formation of Porosity; Keyhole Collapse; Keyhole Formation; Laser Welding; Welding with Filler Metals

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 2002 SPIE -- The International Society for Optical Engineering, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2002