Copper and palladium seed layers have been successfully deposited from organic solutions onto patterned and unpatterned pure aluminum and Al (0.5%Cu) thin films using an immersion displacement process. The reaction occurs at ambient temperature and pressure by a spontaneous electrochemical mechanism. Copper and palladium deposition using the organic solution was studied as a function of reaction time and Cu or Pd concentration in the solution. It was found that both time and the initial ionic metal concentration significantly influence deposit morphology, particle size and shape, and adherence. Nucleation of Cu or Pd sub-micron particles on both Al and Al (Cu) surfaces occurred in less than one minute while nucleation density and particle size increased with longer deposition times. Increasing the copper or palladium concentration in the organic solution resulted in an increase in the final particle size of the seed crystals. However, an increase in deposition time and metal concentration in the organic solution caused more extensive dissolution and pitting of the aluminum thin films. The Cu and Pd deposits were effectively used as catalytic sites for subsequent electroless or electrolytic copper deposition using conventional aqueous processes.


Materials Science and Engineering


Small Business Innovation Research, Grant F33615-97-C-1074

Keywords and Phrases

Copper; Electrochemical deposition; Non-aqueous; Palladium; Selective; Solder

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Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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Publication Date

01 Jan 2001

Included in

Metallurgy Commons