A Process Engineering Approach to Remedy an Environmental Problem of Fugitive Lead Emissions during Lead Refining


The refining of lead blast furnace bullion involves the transfer and handling of hot impure lead bullion. Fugitive emissions of lead-containing fumes create a plant hygiene problem. The cause of the emissions is the high vapor pressure of lead and its compounds when lead blast furnace bullion is transferred in an open ladle at ≈1000 °C from the blast furnace and poured into the drossing kettle, and later during the manual skimming of powdery dross. A laboratory study was conducted on a new concept for lead refining that eliminates contact between hot lead and the environment, and thus abates fugitive lead emissions. The new process takes place in two steps: controlled solidification of bullion as it flows from the blast furnace, followed by remelting in a closed centrifuge to separate lead and dross. Refined lead was produced with >0.05% copper and >0.01% of all other impurities. Suggestions are outlined for implementing the process. © 1995, Materials Research Society. All rights reserved.


Materials Science and Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2044-5326; 0884-2914

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2024 Springer; Materials Research Society, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 1995