The effects of germanium, antimony, arsenic, cobalt, glue, and free acid concentration were studied on both commercial and synthetic electrolytes. The effects of a single factor and the combined effects of multiple factors were elucidated. The temperature, zinc concentration, and current density were varied for some of the tests. It was found that the acid content was the most critical factor when impurity levels were at normal plant solution concentrations. The ranges where the effect of the impurity became apparent were: greater than 20 ppb (parts per billion) for antimony; 40 ppb for germanium; 120 ppb for arsenic; and 7 to 8 mg/1 for cobalt for a solution containing 65 g/1 zinc and 100 g/1 free sulfuric acid. At higher levels of acid, the acceptable level of impurity declined markedly. Glue additions were found to counteract the effects of antimony and germanium, but did little to counteract the effects of cobalt and arsenic. The level of acid was found to be especially critical when cobalt and arsenic were in the electrolyte. Cobalt and arsenic exhibited synergism, and lower current efficiencies were obtained for arsenic-cobalt combinations than expected. A factorially designed experiment was conducted to quantify the effects observed by one-factor-at-a-time testing. The structures and morphologies of the deposits were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. © 1983 The Metallurgical of Society of AIME.
D. R. Fosnacht and T. J. O'Keefe, "The Effects Of Certain Impurities And Their Interactions On Zinc Electrowinning," Metallurgical Transactions B, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 645 - 655, Springer, Dec 1983.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02653950
Materials Science and Engineering
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01 Dec 1983