High silicon and molybdenum (SiMo) ductile iron is commonly used for car exhaust systems, and its micro-structural dispersity depends on intrinsic parameters, which include alloy composition and inoculation efficiency, as well as extrinsic factors, such as casting wall thickness and molding material, which define cooling rate during solidification. Micro-structural dispersity is referred to as the degree of heterogeneity of sizes of structural constituencies within the microstructure. A variation in the micro-structural dispersity could impact the high temperature performance of SiMo ductile iron during static oxidation and transient thermo-mechanical loading conditions. In this study, static high temperature tests were performed on SiMo ductile iron solidified in a casting with varying wall thicknesses from 5 mm to 100 mm. The faster solidified specimens (taken from near chilled casting surfaces) had extremely high micro-structural dispersity as compared to the thicker section samples. After thermal exposure, each of the samples were characterized using 2D sections and 3D µCT images, and the results indicated an order of magnitude difference in graphite phase dispersity. The surface degradation was quantified after static oxidation experiments were implemented at temperature intervals between 650◦ C and 800◦ C. Non-destructive µCT 3D analysis and SEM/EDS were performed on cross sections and used to quantify the scale topology and structure. Carbon analysis was used to decouple the scale formation and decarburization phenomena that occurred within the samples. These methods enabled the quantification of the oxidation of the SiMo cast iron with different micro-structural dispersity levels after being exposed to high temperature static oxidation. Additionally, the complex material behavior during oxidation-assisted transient thermo-mechanical loading will be presented in a separate article.


Materials Science and Engineering


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DE-EE0008458

Keywords and Phrases

high-temperature oxidation; micro-structural dispersity; scale; SiMo ductile iron

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Article - Journal

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Final Version

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Publication Date

01 Apr 2022