Cr–Ni austenitic steels offer significant high temperature corrosion protection by forming a surface oxide layer. However, above critical service conditions (temperature, atmosphere, thermal cycling), oxidized surface can experience intensive degradation because of scale spallation, which could be detrimental to the in-service life. To predict the effect of scale spallation on oxidation kinetics, a simulation was implemented using a stochastic model. The model considers topological parameters and intensity of spallation which can occur, while delivering a true oxidation constant. The experimental procedure identified the amount of formed spalled scale and topology of spallation based on the use of element mapping of the surface. This information was used to determine a true kinetic constant for a corresponding spallation intensity in oxidized Cr–Ni austenitic steel. To illustrate the capability of the stochastic model, a parametric analysis was performed. The model verified how the spallation parameters could change the oxidation processes from parabolic growth of an adhered oxide layer without spallation to a mixed linear-parabolic, or with a constant thickness of residual scale at high spallation intensity. The spallation model will be used in a separate article to characterize high temperature surface degradation of several Cr–Ni austenitic steels during harsh oxidation environments.


Materials Science and Engineering


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DE-EE0008458

Keywords and Phrases

Austenitic steel; Oxidation kinetics; Spallation

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1573-4889; 0030-770X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





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Publication Date

01 Oct 2022