Shock Focusing Effects on Silica Phase Production during Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine/2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Detonations
Detonation is an increasingly studied method for the synthesis of nanomaterials due to the rapid reaction rate producing extreme pressures and temperatures for short durations, which can result in the production of ultra-hard and high-temperature nanomaterials. The present study shows that phase formation in detonation depends on the distribution of inert additives in the explosive charge. Numerical simulations and experimental validation were conducted on silica powders that were shock loaded by detonation of a 3.8 cm diameter cylindrical explosive charge composed of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and paraffin wax. Silica was incorporated into the explosive in three configurations and at two different starting particle sizes in both simulation and experiments. The detonation residues were purified to concentrate the silica and characterized via x-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement and optical microscopy. Loading conditions and silica phase morphology were not consistent between the configurations and starting size of silica incorporated into the charge. The implication of these results is that the prediction of phase production in detonation synthesis experiments cannot be based on Chapman-Jouguet steady detonation parameters of the explosive matrix but must also include analysis of shock interaction and heat transfer into the additives incorporated into the explosive.
M. Langenderfer et al., "Shock Focusing Effects on Silica Phase Production during Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine/2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Detonations," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 129, no. 4, American Institute of Physics, Jan 2021.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0032163
Materials Science and Engineering
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28 Jan 2021