Upward and Downward Facing High Mass Flux Spray Cooling with Additives: A Novel Technique to Enhance the Heat Removal Rate at High Initial Surface Temperature


The objective of the current work is to enhance the spray cooling by changing the orientation of the nozzle with different additives (acetone, methanol, ethanol, benzene, n-hexane, tween 20 and salt) in water. The experiments are carried out by upward, downward and both upward and downward facing sprays. The optimization result depicts that the spray produced by upward facing spray gives higher heat flux than the downward facing spray and also cooling by both the upward and downward facing spray simultaneously produces better result than the individual. Further experiments with both upward and downward facing spray by using different coolants reveal that in case of cooling by ethanol (500 ppm) + water mixture, the maximum enhancement of surface heat flux (~2.57 MW/m2) and cooling rate (204 °C/s) is observed. However, the minimum surface heat flux is achieved in case of methanol (100 ppm) + water due to higher contact angle (710) among all the considered coolants.


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Acetone; Coolants; Cooling; Ethanol; Facings; Hexane; Methanol; Spray nozzles; Spray steelmaking, Cooling rates; Heat removal rates; Minimum surfaces; Novel techniques; Spray cooling; Surface heat fluxes; Surface temperatures; Water mixture, Heat flux

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0947-7411; 1432-1181

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2018 Springer Verlag, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2018