Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V from Elemental Powder Blends


Purpose - This paper aims to achieve Ti-6Al-4V from Ti, Al and V elemental powder blends using direct laser deposition (DLD) and to understand the effects of laser transverse speed and laser power on the initial fabrication of deposit's microstructure and Vickers hardness.

Design/methodology/approach - Two sets of powder blends with different weight percentage ratio for three elemental powder were used during DLD process. Five experiments with different processing parameters were performed to evaluate how microstructure and Vickers hardness change with laser power and laser transverse speed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to analyze deposits' properties.

Findings - This paper reveals that significant variance of elemental powder's size and density would cause lack of weight percentage of certain elements in final part and using multiple coaxial powder nozzles design would be a solution. Also, higher laser power or slower laser transverse speed tend to benefit the formation of finer microstructures and increase Vickers hardness.

Originality/value - This paper demonstrates a new method to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V and gives out a possible weight percentage ratio 87:7:6 for Ti:Al:V at powder blends during DLD process. The relationship between microstructure and Vickers hardness with laser power and laser transverse speed would provide valuable reference for people working on tailoring material properties using elemental powder method.

Meeting Name

26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (2015: Aug. 10-12, Austin, TX)


Materials Science and Engineering

Second Department

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Aluminum; Deposition; Deposits; Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; Microstructure; Nozzle Design; Titanium; Titanium Alloys; Vickers Hardness Testing; X ray Spectroscopy; Composition Distributions; Design/methodology/approach; Direct Laser Deposition; Elemental Powder Blends; Elemental Powders; Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy; Processing Parameters; Ti-6 Al-4 V; Vickers Hardness; DLD Process; Elemental Powder

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

12 Aug 2015