Characteristics of Spinel Inclusions formed after Reoxidation of Calcium Treated Aluminum Killed Steel


Reoxidation of liquid steel during transfer from ladle to tundish affects the inclusion characteristics and is harmful to process stability, mechanical properties, and the overall quality of the cast product. A thermodynamic model was developed and a laboratory vacuum induction furnace was employed to simulate the reoxidation of aluminum killed calcium treated steels. Samples were collected at different times and analyzed via automated SEM/EDS. A method for representing the size distribution of inclusions using the population density function (PDF), was applied to study the effect of reoxidation on the inclusion characteristics. The results show that spinel inclusions can be produced after reoxidation if there is sufficient magnesium in solution. A comparison of the size distributions of spinel inclusion populations showed that spinel inclusions produced after reoxidation are larger than those formed prior to reoxidation and calcium treatment.

Meeting Name

Iron and Steel Technology Conference (2016: May 16-19, Pittsburgh, PA)


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Keywords and Phrases

Aluminum; Population statistics; Size distribution; Vacuum furnaces; Aluminum killed steel; Calcium treatment; Inclusion characteristics; Overall quality; Population densities; Process stability; Thermodynamic model; Vacuum induction furnaces; Population distribution

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 2016 Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 May 2016

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