Model Studies of Splash, Waves, and Recirculating Flows within Steelmaking Furnaces


Top-blown supersonic lances are used in many steelmaking and ironmaking processes including basic oxygen furnaces, the AISI/DOE direct ironmaking process, and many modern electric arc furnaces. Although a great deal of research has studied vertical jetting and its effects on baths, very little work has been done on inclined jetting. Experiments in a two-dimensional slice model, using high-speed video and a new image analysis technique, provided a method of studying splashing, the conditions that caused jet recirculation, and the mechanisms of cavity and wave formation. Experiments in a one-half scale water model were used to study the effects of a slag phase and bottom shape on travelling and standing waves. A mechanism that explains the formation of waves at the cavity is described. Thicker layers of slag, more viscous slags, and foamly slags were all found effective in reducing the splash and waves associated with jetting. Increased curvature in the bottom of the furnace was found to dampen waves.

Meeting Name

77th Steelmaking Conference (1994: Mar. 20-23, Chicago, IL)


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Keywords and Phrases

Electric furnaces; Image analysis; Models; Slags; Viscosity; Water; Displacement; Inclined jetting; Recirculating flows; Self entrainment; Splashing; Standing waves; Supersonic lances; Steelmaking furnaces

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


File Type





© 1994 Iron & Steel Society of AIME, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 1994

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