The flipped classroom has the potential to improve student performance. Because flipping involves both preclass preparation and problem solving in the classroom, the means by which increased learning occurs and whether the method of delivering content matters is of interest. In a partially flipped cell biology course, students were assigned online videos before the flipped class and textbook reading before lectures. Low-stakes assessments were used to incentivize both types of preclass preparation. We hypothesized that more students would watch the videos than read the textbook and that both types of preparation would positively affect exam performance. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that both reading and video viewing had a significant positive impact on exam score, and this model was predictive of exam scores. In contrast to our expectations, most students prepared by both watching videos and reading the textbook and did not exhibit a pattern of solely watching videos. This analysis supports previous findings that engagement with material outside class is partly responsible for the improved outcomes in a flipped classroom and shows that both reading and watching videos are effective at delivering content outside class.


Mathematics and Statistics

Second Department

Biological Sciences

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research


K.B.S. would like to acknowledge support from Missouri S&T EdTech office and staff for assistance with producing, editing, and closed-captioning of flipped video lectures. This effort was supported in part by multiple campus grants to support course redesign and educational research: eFellows Program grants from the Missouri S&T Provost office and Educational Technology, “Design of a ‘Flipped’ Cell Biology Course” and “Redevelopment and Enhancement of Cellular Biology,” an educational research mini-grant from Missouri S&T Center for Educational Research and Teaching Innovation (CERTI) “Do Flipped Lectures Increase Student Engagement with Course Material?,” and funding from Missouri S&T Center for Advancing Faculty Excellence (CAFE) for publishing results from past mini-grants award.

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Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

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Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2020

PubMed ID