Masters Theses


Xiaolong Liu


"Folds and fold trains of sedimentary strata are among the most common structural traps systems for hydrocarbon reservoirs. The existence of tensile fractures associated to buckle folding is associated to the distribution of extensional strain in the outer arc of the fold hinges. This study investigates the conditions under which tensile stresses develop due to buckling in a realistic in situ stress scenario. By applying a 2D finite element modeling approach, the influence of realistic mechanical stratigraphy (including strain rate, overburden depth, competence contrasts, viscosity, and permeability) on the development of single-layer buckle folds with Newtonian viscous rheology is studied. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that the buckling process cannot explain the common observation and occurrence of tensile failure. Only low permeability (<10⁻¹⁹ m²) or low overburden pressure environments are possible to generate tensile failure at the top of the fold crest. Tensile failures in the limb of the fold cannot be explained by buckling only. This study shows that for high permeability rocks the generation of tensile stress both at the crest and limb of the fold can be the result of buckling followed by erosional unloading. In summary, tensile stresses and associated failure in buckle folds systems are determined by material parameters and the strain history"--Abstract, page iii.


Eckert, Andreas

Committee Member(s)

Nygaard, Runar
Hogan, John Patrick


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Petroleum Engineering


Chevron Corporation


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2013


xiv, 144 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 54-57).


© 2013 Xiaolong Liu, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Folds (Geology)
Geology, Structural -- Mathematical models
Strains and stresses
Geology, Stratigraphic

Thesis Number

T 10407

Electronic OCLC #