Masters Theses


"The Hens Egg Test on the Chorionallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) is an ocular irritation test proposed to replace tradition ocular investigations such as the Draize eye test that has been criticized because of its use of animals. In this study, the ocular irritation potential of seawater and saltwater sources dosed with different disinfectants has been evaluated using the HET-CAM. The seawater and salt water tested was taken from the main show pools from three aquatic theme parks (San Diego, San Antonio, and Orlando). The three disinfectants considered were sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)₂), and ozone (O₃).

Three different HET-CAM methods were performed. Egg preparation using Method One proved to be very difficult, and very few signs of irritation were observed. Egg preparation using Method Two proved much easier, but the new setup helped induce the irritation observed. Finally, egg preparation using Method Three was similar to Method Two, but alleviated the affect of irritation induced by outside factors.

The development of a working method left little time to obtain pertinent results. Nevertheless, as suggested by Erdinger et al., a synergistic effect was observed and may contribute to the ocular irritation induced. Also, the ocular irritation potential of Ca(OCl)₂ appeared to be mildly less offensive than CaOCI.

Ultimately, the results at hand do help to serve as a guideline for anyone who may wish to pursue this project/method further"--Abstract, page iii.


Adams, C. D. (Craig D.)

Committee Member(s)

Burken, Joel G. (Joel Gerard)
Ma, Yinfa


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Environmental Engineering


Busch Entertainment Corp.


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date



x, 52 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 50-51).


© 2009 Alexander Clovis Winters, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Restricted Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Eye -- Diseases -- Diagnosis
Seawater -- Testing
Calcium hypochlorite -- Testing
Sodium hypochlorite -- Testing

Thesis Number

T 10264

Print OCLC #


Electronic OCLC #


Link to Catalog Record

Electronic access to the full-text of this document is restricted to Missouri S&T users. Otherwise, request this publication directly from Missouri S&T Library or contact your local library.

Share My Thesis If you are the author of this work and would like to grant permission to make it openly accessible to all, please click the button above.