Location

St. Louis, Missouri

Session Start Date

3-11-1991

Session End Date

3-15-1991

Abstract

It has been almost 27 years since the damaging earthquakes of 1964 which occurred in Niigata, Japan and in Alaska, USA, focused the geotechnical engineers' attention to liquefaction as a major problem in earthquake engineering. Considerable research and studies have been conducted on the subject of earthquake induced liquefaction since that time and these have included field observations, laboratory experiments and model tests, and theoretical studies. Progress in understanding the liquefaction phenomenon, in the assessment of liquefaction potential, and in the solutions to mitigate the liquefaction hazard has been made, yet the problem remains controversial in many respects, as reflected by the many stimulating papers presented in this session. The word "liquefaction" has been associated with many phenomena observed in the field during and after earthquakes such as sand boils, flow slides, lateral spreads, loss of bearing capacity and porewater pressure rise. In laboratory tests, liquefaction has been defined in several ways relating to pore pressure buildup under undrained cyclic straining or loading, or the development of a specified amount of shear strain in a fixed number of cycles of loading. Laboratory studies have also shown that the liquefaction phenomenon can be divided into three different behaviors, namely, true liquefaction, limited liquefaction and cyclic mobility. In theoretical studies, liquefaction occurs when the seismic-induced cyclic shear stress exceeds the cyclic shear resistance, or when the seismic porewater pressure increases to equal the effective stress. To compare the results from different papers, one must bear in mind the different definitions used by the various authors. Liquefaction-caused failure is really the result of excessive permanent deformation, e.g. tilting, settlement or heave of structures, excessive slumping or distortion, and sliding of slopes. Liquefaction-induced ground deformation is receiving more attention in the last decade. Soil failure due to liquefaction was the most dominant cause of damage in the recent M 7. 7 Luzon earthquake of July 16, 1990 in the Philippines. Remedial measures or ground improvement techniques to reduce the liquefaction hazards are becoming more common in recent years, not only for seismic rehabilitation of existing sites but also for newly developed sites. Refinements in equipment and techniques of existing methods are being developed. As well, new methods of ground improvements are being introduced. The M 7.1 Lorna Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 showed convincingly that liquefaction hazard can be avoided or effectively mitigated by soil densification prior to earthquake.

Department(s)

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Appears In

International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics

Meeting Name

Second Conference

Publisher

University of Missouri--Rolla

Publication Date

3-11-1991

Document Version

Final Version

Rights

© 1991 University of Missouri--Rolla, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

File Type

text

Language

English

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Mar 11th, 12:00 AM Mar 15th, 12:00 AM

General Report Session 3: Deformation and Liquefaction of Sands, Silt, Gravels and Clays

St. Louis, Missouri

It has been almost 27 years since the damaging earthquakes of 1964 which occurred in Niigata, Japan and in Alaska, USA, focused the geotechnical engineers' attention to liquefaction as a major problem in earthquake engineering. Considerable research and studies have been conducted on the subject of earthquake induced liquefaction since that time and these have included field observations, laboratory experiments and model tests, and theoretical studies. Progress in understanding the liquefaction phenomenon, in the assessment of liquefaction potential, and in the solutions to mitigate the liquefaction hazard has been made, yet the problem remains controversial in many respects, as reflected by the many stimulating papers presented in this session. The word "liquefaction" has been associated with many phenomena observed in the field during and after earthquakes such as sand boils, flow slides, lateral spreads, loss of bearing capacity and porewater pressure rise. In laboratory tests, liquefaction has been defined in several ways relating to pore pressure buildup under undrained cyclic straining or loading, or the development of a specified amount of shear strain in a fixed number of cycles of loading. Laboratory studies have also shown that the liquefaction phenomenon can be divided into three different behaviors, namely, true liquefaction, limited liquefaction and cyclic mobility. In theoretical studies, liquefaction occurs when the seismic-induced cyclic shear stress exceeds the cyclic shear resistance, or when the seismic porewater pressure increases to equal the effective stress. To compare the results from different papers, one must bear in mind the different definitions used by the various authors. Liquefaction-caused failure is really the result of excessive permanent deformation, e.g. tilting, settlement or heave of structures, excessive slumping or distortion, and sliding of slopes. Liquefaction-induced ground deformation is receiving more attention in the last decade. Soil failure due to liquefaction was the most dominant cause of damage in the recent M 7. 7 Luzon earthquake of July 16, 1990 in the Philippines. Remedial measures or ground improvement techniques to reduce the liquefaction hazards are becoming more common in recent years, not only for seismic rehabilitation of existing sites but also for newly developed sites. Refinements in equipment and techniques of existing methods are being developed. As well, new methods of ground improvements are being introduced. The M 7.1 Lorna Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 showed convincingly that liquefaction hazard can be avoided or effectively mitigated by soil densification prior to earthquake.