Field trials have demonstrated that foamed gel is a very cost-effective technology for profile modification and water shut-off. However, the mechanisms of profile modification and flow behavior of foamed gel in non-homogeneous porous media are not yet well understood. In order to investigate these mechanisms and the interactions between foamed gel and oil in porous media, coreflooding and pore-scale visualization waterflooding experiments were performed in the laboratory. The results of the coreflooding experiment in non-homogeneous porous media showed that the displacement efficiency improved by approximately 30% after injecting a 0.3 pore volume of foamed gel, and was proportional to the pore volumes of the injected foamed gel. Additionally, the mid-high permeability zone can be selectively plugged by foamed gel, and then oil located in the low permeability zone will be displaced. The visualization images demonstrated that the amoeba effect and Jamin effect are the main mechanisms for enhancing oil recovery by foamed gel. Compared with conventional gel, a unique benefit of foamed gel is that it can pass through micropores by transforming into arbitrary shapes without rupturing, this phenomenon has been named the amoeba effect. Additionally, the stability of foam in the presence of crude oil also was investigated. Image and statistical analysis showed that these foams boast excellent oil resistance and elasticity, which allows them to work deep within formations.:


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Petroleum; Gel; Enhanced Oil Recovery; Flow Kinetics; Foam; Foamed Gel; Fuel And Fuel Related Phenomena; Gel; Gelation; Image Analysis; Permeability; Statistical Analysis; Strength; Viscosity; Chemical Model; Chemistry; Porosity; Models, Chemical; Porosity

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2015 Public Library of Science, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2015

Included in

Geology Commons