Groundwater circulation wells (GCWs) are a quasi-in-situ method for remediating groundwater in areas where remediation techniques that limit the water available for municipal, domestic, industrial, or agricultural purposes are inappropriate. The inherently resource-conservative nature of groundwater circulation wells is also philosophically appealing in today's culture, which is supportive of green technologies. Groundwater circulation wells involve the circulation of groundwater through a dual screen well, with treatment occurring between the screens. The wells are specifically designed so that one well screen draws in groundwater and the second returns the groundwater after it has been treated within the well. Historically, the treatment has been performed with specialized equipment proprietary to GCW vendors. Two full-scale pilot systems at a formerly used Defense Superfund site in Nebraska used best available technologies for treatment components. A multiple-tray, low-profile air stripper typically used for pump-and-treat remediation systems was successfully adapted for the GCW pilot system located in a trichloroethylene (TCE) hot spot. An ultraviolet water disinfection system was successfully adapted for the GCW pilot system located in a hot spot contaminated with the explosive compound hexhydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The pilot systems showed that GCW technology is competitive with a previously considered pump-and-treat alternative for focused extraction, and the regulatory community was supportive of additional GCW applications. A remedial design for the site includes 12 more GCW systems to complete focused remediation requirements. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

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Full Access

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1520-6831; 1051-5658

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Article - Journal

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Publication Date

01 Jan 2002