Sequential Injection Mode of High-Salinity/Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs: Oil Recovery and Surface Reactivity Tests


The aim of this paper is to quantify the effect of low-salinity (LS) water on oil recovery from sandstone cores at different temperatures and at various permeabilities, oil viscosities, and Ca2+ concentrations in the formation water. Six sandstone cores were waterflooded with high-salinity (HS) and LS water at various temperatures ranging from 25 to 90 °C. Four cores were allocated to oil recovery experiments, and the other two were dedicated to surface reactivity tests. The Swi and Sor of the cores were established, and then the cores were pre-aged for 3 days at 70 °C with oil in a closed container. We examined the effect of different ionic solutions (HS water, LS water, and double Ca2+ HS water) at different temperatures. The surface reactivity test cores were flooded with the same HS and LS brines that were used in oil recovery forced-imbibition experiments. During flooding, samples of the effluent were analyzed for pH and Ca2+. The absence of an oil phase enabled us to isolate and quantify the important water–rock reactions. Ca2+ desorption from the core that was aged in the double Ca2+ concentration was larger than that desorbed from the other core, but pH and pressure was less than the other core during surface reactivity tests. Due to dehydration at high temperatures, the desorption of Ca2+decreased as the temperature increased. Also, as the temperature increased, the pH gradient between the HS and LS water effluents decreased. Oil recovery forced-imbibition experiments with a double Ca2+ concentration showed a small LS water effect at all temperatures, meaning that the cores became more water-wet; however, the LS water effect was much greater when the amount of Ca2+ in the HS water was decreased by half. Furthermore, as the core permeability and oil viscosity increased, our tests showed a greater positive effect from the LS water. This work attempts to isolate the separate effects and thus examines the oil recovery achieved with the most important LS waterflood factors, which are temperature, ion exchange, and pH.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Cation adsorption; Enhanced oil recovery; Geochemistry; Low salinity water flooding; Surface reactivity test

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2190-0558; 2190-0566

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2018 Springer Verlag, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Mar 2019