Comprehensive Review of Worldwide CO₂ Immiscible Flooding
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) flooding is a mature technology in oil industry, which finds broad attention in oil production during tertiary oil recovery (EOR). After five decade's developments, there are many successful reports for CO₂ miscible flooding. However, operators recognized that achieving miscible phase is one of big challenge in fields with extremely high minimum miscible pressure (MMP) after considering the safety and economics. Compared with CO₂ miscible flooding, immiscible CO₂ flooding demonstrates the great potentials under varying reservoir/fluid conditions. A comprehensive and high-quality data set for CO₂ immiscible flooding are built by collecting various data from books, DOE reports, AAPG database, oil and gas biennially EOR survey, field reports and SPE publications. Important reservoir/fluid information, operational parameters and project performance evaluations are included, which provides the basis for comprehensive data analysis. Combination plot of boxplot and histogram are generated, where boxplots are used to detect the special cases and to summarize the ranges of each parameter; histograms display the distribution of each parameter and to identify the best suitable ranges for propose guidelines. Results show that CO₂ immiscible flooding could recover additional 4.7 to 12.5% of oil with average injection efficiency of 10.07 Mscf/stb; CO₂ immiscible technique can be implemented in light/medium/ heavy oil reservoirs with a wide range of net thickness (5.2 - 300 ft); yet in heavy oil specifically reservoir (oil gravity < 25 °API) with thin layer (net thickness < 50 ft) is better.
N. Zhang et al., "Comprehensive Review of Worldwide CO₂ Immiscible Flooding," Proceedings of the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference 2018 (2018, Tulsa, OK), Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Apr 2018.
SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference 2018 (2018: Apr. 14-18, Tulsa, OK)
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Carbon dioxide; Crude oil; Enhanced recovery; Floods; Graphic methods; Oil well flooding; Petroleum reservoir evaluation; Petroleum reservoirs; Reservoirs (water); Well flooding, Heavy oil reservoirs; High quality data; Injection efficiency; Miscible flooding; Oil production; Operational parameters; Project performance; Tertiary oil recovery, Heavy oil production
Article - Conference proceedings
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