Real-Time Frequency Regulation using Aggregated Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid


The electric vehicle (EV) market has witnessed a continuous and steady increase in the past few years. The benefits of lower energy costs and less greenhouse gas (GHG) emission have been widely recognized by customers. In addition to these benefits for the transportation sector, EVs are also considered a critical supplementary resource for building a sustainable energy system in a smart grid environment. The applications of EVs in a smart grid have attracted wide attention in recent years. One appealing application is to use aggregated EVs as either energy sources or sinks to provide a service of frequency regulation for the request signals from the grid. A real-time decision-making model is proposed in this paper for the EV aggregator to dynamically control the energy flow between the grid and each individual EV in the aggregated group as an effective response to the signals of frequency regulation issued by the grid using Markov Decision Process. The aggregator's benefit is maximized through the identification of a set of optimal charging/discharging decisions for the aggregated EVs. A semi-online solution strategy is also proposed to find the near-optimal decisions on a real-time basis. A numerical case study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.


Engineering Management and Systems Engineering

Second Department

Computer Science

Third Department

Mathematics and Statistics

Keywords and Phrases

Electric vehicle; Frequency regulation; Real-time; Smart grid

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2019 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2019