This Proof-Of-Concept Paper Demonstrates the Feasibility of using a Slide Projector to Steer the Beam of a Transmit Array by Adding Solar Cells and Varactor Diodes to Each Unit Cell. by Irradiating Each Solar Cell with the Light of Different Intensities from a Slide Projector, the Measured Phase of the Wave Transmitted by the 4x4 Transmit Array Shifts within 92° at 4.26 GHz, While the Variation in Magnitude is Measured within 4 DB. Different Light Configurations Are Identified Via a Searching Algorithm to Achieve Peak/null Beamforming in a Particular Direction. the Beam of the Prototypical 4x4 Transmit Array Can Be Shifted by ±24° in Terms of the Peaks and -30° to 36° in Terms of the Nulls. the Concept of Adding Light Modulation to the Transmit Array with a Slide Projector Can Provide Update Rates of 10s of Milliseconds with Control of Brightness and Color Distributed over a Large Area of the Array.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Publication Status

Early Access

Keywords and Phrases

Beamforming; Capacitance; light modulation; Microstrip; Microstrip antennas; Phase shifters; Phased arrays; Photovoltaic cells; reconfigurable slide projector; transmit array; varactor diodes; Varactors

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1558-2221; 0018-926X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023