It is Well Known that Various Diurnal and Morphological Features of the Ionosphere Reveal Substantial Departures from the Normally Simplified Assumption of Spherical Symmetry at Certain Times of the Day or at Certain Geographic Locations. a Radio Ray Passing through Such an Ionosphere Must Bear Information About its Horizontal Gradients. the Leading Edge of a Backscatter Ionogram is Formed by Obliquely Propagated Radio Rays of Minimum Time Delay and Hence is Useful in Deducing Information About the Ionospheric Horizontal Gradients. in This Regard, the Ionospheric Electron Density Distribution is Modeled by a Locally Quasi‐parabolic Layer with Six Parameters. This Six‐parameter Space is Known as the 'ion state.' Our Object is to Seek the 'best' Ion state in the Sense that the Corresponding Mean Square Error in Group Delay is a Minimum. a Computer Program Has Been Written to Carry Out the Specified Procedure. a Number of Sample Calculations Are Presented and Discussed. Copyright 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.
R. E. DuBroff et al., "Backscatter Inversion in Spherically Asymmetric Ionosphere," Radio Science, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 837 - 841, Wiley; American Geophysical Union, Jan 1979.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1029/RS014i005p00837
Electrical and Computer Engineering
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01 Jan 1979