A highly sensitive strain sensor based on tunable cascaded Fabry–Perot interferometers (FPIs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Cascaded FPIs consist of a sensing FPI and a reference FPI, which effectively generate the Vernier effect (VE). The sensing FPI comprises a hollow core fiber (HCF) segment sandwiched between single-mode fibers (SMFs), and the reference FPI consists of a tunable air reflector, which is constituted by a computer-programable fiber holding block to adjust the desired cavity length. The simulation results predict the dispersion characteristics of modes carried by HCF. The sensor's parameters are designed to correspond to a narrow bandwidth range, i.e., 1530 nm to 1610 nm. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor exhibits optimum strain sensitivity of 23.9 pm/με, 17.54 pm/με, and 14.11 pm/με cascaded with the reference FPI of 375 μm, 365 μm, and 355 μm in cavity length, which is 13.73, 10.08, and 8.10 times higher than the single sensing FPI with a strain sensitivity of 1.74 pm/με, respectively. The strain sensitivity of the sensor can be further enhanced by extending the source bandwidth. The proposed sensor exhibits ultra-low temperature sensitivity of 0.49 pm/°C for a temperature range of 25 °C to 135 °C, providing good isolation for eliminating temperature–strain cross-talk. The sensor is robust, cost-effective, easy to manufacture, repeatable, and shows a highly linear and stable response for strain sensing. Based on the sensor's performance, it may be a good candidate for high-resolution strain sensing.


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology, Grant 65409-0040

Keywords and Phrases

Fabry–Perot interferometers; hollow core fiber; strain sensor; Vernier effect

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Article - Journal

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Final Version

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2022

PubMed ID