Optimal Scheduling for Profit Maximization of Energy Storage Merchants Considering Market Impact based on Dynamic Programming


This paper analyzes how electricity merchants' market impact affects merchants' profit. Energy storage has long been studied for its role in maximizing profit, and merchant decisions are assumed to have no impact on market prices. However, the trading decisions of large-scale energy storage merchants (e.g., pumped storage hydro) will affect the market prices. This paper employs dynamic programming theory to investigate merchants' optimal economic dispatch considering the market impact and physical characteristics of storage systems. Our findings show that the State-of-Charge (SOC) based analytical solution significantly facilitates energy storage merchants' decision-making. The SOC range is segmented into three regions by two optimal SOC reference points, which depend on the available energy in storage, given prices, and market impact. By comparing the current storage SOC with the reference points, the merchant can get the corresponding optimal actions. We analytically show that if the merchant neglects the market impact on the power market, she will exaggerate her expected profit when the price-taker and price-maker merchants have the same generating and pumping upper limits offered to Independent System Operators (ISOs). The profit-maximizing merchant must, therefore, assay to balance the trade-off correctly between the intensity of market impact and the dispatched power. Our findings are verified by numerical simulation, and results demonstrate the ramifications for electricity merchants in energy arbitrage decisions.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Dynamic Programming; Electricity Storage And Dispatch; Energy; Market Impact; Power Market

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2021 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 May 2021