Analytic Passive Intermodulation Behavior on the Coaxial Connector using Monte Carlo Approximation


This paper presents a novel passive intermodulation (PIM) prediction method considering random contact behavior using a Monte Carlo method for a coaxial connector. A smart contact model for a contact unit at a microcosmic level is proposed. Using Monte Carlo approximation and micromeasurements, different random distributed contact samples for different contact components inside the coaxial connector are reconstructed. In the experiment, PIM on inner and outer conductor was tested and compared with predication. A good agreement proves the proposed PIM prediction method is efficient. Rather than generating a single PIM prediction value, this method will give a PIM confidence interval for all the potential PIM values considering the contact force statistical behavior. The work will help analyze fluctuated PIM on coaxial connectors and inspire a new method to predict PIM risk.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Laboratory

Keywords and Phrases

Connectors (structural); Contact resistance; Electric conductors; Forecasting; Intermodulation distortion; Intermodulation measurement; Metals; Coaxial connectors; Confidence interval; Force; Micromeasurements; Monte-carlo approximations; Passive intermodulation; Prediction methods; Statistical behavior; Monte Carlo methods

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0018-9375; 1558-187X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2018 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2018