Bias and CRB Analysis of LoS-Based and RSS-Based Ranging Methods


In this paper, bias and Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) analyses for both proposed line of sight (LoS)-Based and conventional received signal strength (RSS)-Based ranging methods are provided. A minimum bias of LoS-based ranging is derived, which is based on the asymptotic variance (AsV) of the estimator. Mean square error lower bound (MSEB), which is the summation of CRB and the square of minimum bias, is employed to compare with existing RSS-based methods. The existing RSS-based ranging methods are categorized, and corresponding biases are analyzed. The multipath fading effect to the final range estimation has been modeled into the MSEB. The proposed LoS-Based ranging method minimizes the effect of non-LoS (NLoS) component (i.e., the multipath fading) in the received signal. The derived model was validated by simulation. Both the analytic model and simulation results show that the performance of the proposed LoS method is superior to that of the conventional RSS-Based methods.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Keywords and Phrases

Codes (symbols); Cramer-Rao bounds; Fading channels; Multipath fading; Range finding; Analytic modeling; Asymptotic variance; Cramer-rao bound analysis; Line of Sight; localization; Multipath fading effects; Range estimation; Received signal strength; Mean square error; Ranging

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0018-9545; 1939-9359

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2016 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Nov 2016