Equalization Enhancement Approaches for PAM4 Signaling for Next Generation Speeds
Four-level pulse-amplitude modulation signal (PAM4) is gaining more attention as an alternate coding scheme to binary modulation NRZ (Non Return to Zero) in high speed systems as the signal rate is reduced by half. Transmitter and receiver equalizations continue to play an important role with PAM4 encoding. Even though de-emphasis is a well standardized approach for equalization in NRZ, two enhancement approaches for PAM4 de-emphasis are proposed in the paper. The first enhancement approach is to compensate voltage levels in the de-emphasis process and the second one is to equalize the signal by bit rather than by symbol. Several test cases are presented to show the improvement in eye opening compared to the old approach. The limitations of these two enhancement approaches are also discussed.
J. He et al., "Equalization Enhancement Approaches for PAM4 Signaling for Next Generation Speeds," Proceedings of the 67th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2017, Lake Buena Vista, FL), pp. 1874-1879, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Jun 2017.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1109/ECTC.2017.178
67th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2017: May 30-Jun. 2, Lake Buena Vista, FL)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Laboratory
Keywords and Phrases
Equalizers; Modulation; Network Components; Oscillators (Electronic); De-Emphasis; Equalizations; Eye Diagrams; High Speed Serial Links; PAM4; Pulse Amplitude Modulation; Eye Diagram; High Speed Serial Links
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Article - Conference proceedings
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