New simulation models are proposed for Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. First, the statistical properties of Clarke's fading model with a finite number of sinusoids are analyzed. An improved Clarke's model is then proposed for the simulation of Rayleigh fading channels. Based on this improved Rayleigh fading model, a novel simulation model is proposed for Rician fading channels. The new Rician fading model employs a zero-mean stochastic sinusoid as the specular (line-of-sight) component, in contrast to all existing Rician fading simulators that utilize a non-zero mean deterministic specular component. The statistical properties of the proposed Rician fading model are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the probability density function of the Rician fading phase is not only independent of time but also uniformly distributed over (-π, π). This property is different from that of existing Rician fading models. The statistical properties of the new simulators are confirmed by extensive simulation results, finding good agreement with theoretical analysis in all cases. An explicit formula for the level crossing rate is derived for general Rician fading when the specular component has non-zero Doppler frequency.

Meeting Name

IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2003


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Clarks Fading Model; Rayleigh Channels; Rayleigh Fading Channels; Rician Channels; Rician Fading Channels; Line-Of-Sight; Mobile Radio; Nonzero Doppler Frequency; Nonzero Mean Deterministic Specular Component; Probability Density Function; Sinusoids Finite Number; Specular Component-Rician Fading Simulators; Statistical Analysis; Statistical Simulation; Zero-Mean Stochastic Sinusoid

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2003 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2003