Batteries, ultra capacitors, fuel cells, and solar arrays are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles (EVs/HVs) as an electric power source or an energy storage unit. In the structure of the electric power system of modern EVs/HVs, more than one of these units may be employed to improve the performance and efficiency; hence utilization of a multi-input DC-DC converter is inevitable to obtain a regulated bus DC voltage. In this paper, a review of multiple input DC-DC power electronic converters (MI-PEC) devoted to combine the power flow from several on-board energy sources of an EV/HV is presented. Several multi-input DC-DC converters based on various topologies are studied and analyzed. The operating modes of each topology is presented and compared with other topologies.

Meeting Name

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (2005: Sep. 7-9, Chicago, IL)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

DC-DC Power Convertors; Battery; Bus DC Voltage Regulation; Electric Power Source; Electric Power System; Electric Vehicle; Energy Storage; Energy Storage Unit; Fuel Cell; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Vehicle; Load Flow; Multiple Input DC-DC Converter; Power Flow; Solar Array; Ultra Capacitor; Voltage Control; Hybrid Vehicles; Ultra Capacitors; Electric Potential; Electric Power Systems; Electric Vehicles; Power Electronics; Topology; Electric Converters

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2005 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2005