"Electrochemical deposition (ECD) has been used widely in the electronics industry. A novel "galvanic deposition" process was used for spontaneous and selective ECD of metal from organic solutions in contrast to the more conventional aqueous media. The more noble metal ions loaded in the organic solution are reduced and deposited onto the less noble metal substrate, which is simultaneously dissolved into the organic.
Cu and Pd seed layers have been successfully deposited from organic solutions onto patterned and unpatterned pure aluminum and Al(0.5wt%Cu) thin films using this immersion displacement process. The Cu and Pd deposits were effectively used as catalytic sites for subsequent conventional electroless or electrolytic copper deposition.
Further studies were performed to modify and optimize the organic deposition solution composition. These modified organic solutions could be used to deposit nearly continuous copper films on both unpatterned and patterned aluminum substrates. A patent disclosure on the modified organic deposition process was made to the University of Missouri and will be officially filed with the U.S. Patent Office.
The EIS technique was one method used to characterize these high resistivity organic media. The organic solution resistivites were determined to be in the range of ~10⁸Ω-cm but decreased to ~10⁶Ω-cm with the addition of some modifying additives.
Pd and Cu deposition have also been accomplished on various blanket and patterned Ti, TiN, Ta, and TaN barrier films. Some pre-treatment or in-situ etching in combination with ultrasonic or intensive mechanical agitation was necessary to activate the surface and enhance the metal deposition reaction. After seeding, continuous copper films were built up using a conventional electroless or electroplating process"--Abstract, page iv.
O'Keefe, T. J. (Thomas J.)
Stoffer, James O.
Ramsay, Christopher W.
Askeland, Donald R.
Kohser, Ronald A.
Materials Science and Engineering
Ph. D. in Metallurgical Engineering
Brewer Science Corporation
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)
University of Missouri--Rolla
Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation
- Spontaneous, non-aqueous electrochemical deposition of copper and palladium on Al and Al(Cu) thin films
- Spontaneous, selective electrochemical deposition on Cu onto Al from modified organic solutions
- Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the characterization of low conductivity media
- Electrochemical palladium and copper deposition onto barrier materials from organic solutions
xxi, 224 pages
© 2001 Rui Fang, All rights reserved.
Dissertation - Restricted Access
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Electronic access to the full-text of this document is restricted to Missouri S&T users. Otherwise, request this publication directly from Missouri S&T Library or contact your local library.http://merlin.lib.umsystem.edu:80/record=b8480798~S5
Fang, Rui, "Spontaneous metal deposition from organic solutions for electronic materials applications" (2001). Doctoral Dissertations. 79.
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