Doctoral Dissertations


Chuang Qu

Keywords and Phrases

Metamaterial; Micro/nano structure; Microfabrication; Microsphere photolithography; Nanotechnology; Radiation heat transfer


“The cost-effective manufacturing of metasurfaces over large areas is a critical issue that limits their implementations. Microsphere photolithography (MPL) uses a scalable self-assembled microsphere array as an optical element to focus collimated light to nanoscale photonic jets in a photoresist layer. This dissertation investigates the fabrication capabilities, process control, and potential applications of MPL. First, the MPL concept is applied to the fabrication of metasurfaces with engineered IR absorption (e.g. perfect absorption with multiband/broadband and wavelength/polarization dependences). Improving the patterning of the photoresist requires a fundamental understanding the photochemical photonic jet interactions. The dissertation presents a model of the MPL process with a cellular automata algorithm to simulate the development process. The model accurately predicts the size and shape of the features generated from MPL. It enables the identification of fabrication conditions to improve the resolution for the MPL process. Finally, the dissertation discusses the potential for a reusable microsphere array. Control of the contact forces is critical for minimizing the gap in between the microsphere array and the substrate and maintaining the consistent performance. Overall, the dissertation provides a foundation for understanding the process-structure-performance relationships for the fabrication of metasurfaces using microsphere photolithography. The use of the MPL for the fabrication of metasurfaces, with application such as sensing and thermal management, is novel as is the modeling of the MPL process”--Abstract, page iv.


Kinzel, Edward C.

Committee Member(s)

Almasri, Mahmoud
Homan, Kelly
Pan, Heng
Nath, Manashi


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Mechanical Engineering


The author gratefully acknowledges financial support from NSF (ECCS-1509589, CMMI-1653792),as well as the Material Research Center at the Missouri University of Science and Technology.


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2019

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Polycrystalline metasurface perfect absorbers/emitters fabricated using microsphere photolithography
  • Infrared metasurfaces created with off-normal incidence microsphere photolithography
  • Thermal radiation from microsphere photolithography patterned metasurfaces
  • Fabrication of infrared broadband polarized emitting metasurfaces using microsphere photolithography
  • Modeling of microsphere photolithography
  • Mask-based microsphere photolithography


xii, 127 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2019 Chuang Qu, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12094