Doctoral Dissertations


"Haloacetic acids, trihalomethanes, and bromate are important toxic water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulates in drinking water. Iodoacetic acids and halonitromethanes (HNMs) are the unregulated emerging DBPs that have been recently found in the disinfected drinking waters, and which have much higher toxicity than the regulated DBPs. The purpose of this study was to develop new analytical methods for analysis of these emerging DBPs, to study their occurrence in Missouri drinking water systems, and to investigate the occurrence and formation of these DBPs in saltwater and seawater based marine park aquaria. A new rapid and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ten brominated and/or iodinated acetic acids, bromate, iodate, bromide, and iodide using ion chromatography-inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). A new solid phase microextration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS) method was also developed for rapid trihalomethanes analysis. Screening occurrence studies of the DBPs in 34 Missouri drinking water treatment systems were conducted.The highly cytotoxic and genotoxic emerging HNMs were observed in most of the Missouri drinking waters with the concentrations in the range from non-detectable to 6.7 µg/L. Occurrence and formation studies of these DBPs in seawater/saltwater-based aquaria in commercial marine parks discovered that all of these DBPs were formed in the aquaria of marine parks at much higher concentrations than those in the drinking water. These DBPs have potential to be harmful and may potentially be one of the causes of the eye/skin irritation problems experience in marine park aquaria"--Abstract, page iv.


Adams, C. D. (Craig D.)
Whitefield, Philip D.

Committee Member(s)

Switzer, Jay A., 1950-
Nam, Paul Ki-souk
Wang, Jianmin



Degree Name

Ph. D. in Chemistry


Missouri. Department of Natural Resources
Busch Entertainment Corp.


This research work was supported under a cooperative agreement with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, Jefferson City, MO) and a research grant with Busch Entertainment Corporation (St. Louis, MO).


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2010

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Rapid IC-ICP/MS method for simultaneous analysis of iodoacetic acids, bromoacetic acids, bromate, and other related halogenated compounds in water
  • Fast and sensitive detection of trihalomethanes in water by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Total iodine and total bromine detection in Missouri drinking water systems
  • Occurrence of halonitromethanes in Missouri drinking water systems
  • Occurrence and formation of disinfection by-products in sea water/salt water based aquaria


xviii, 135 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2010 Honglan Shi, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11580

Electronic OCLC #


Included in

Chemistry Commons