Ozone Interactions with Carpet: Secondary Emissions of Aldehydes


Ozone-induced formation of aldehydes was studied on the surface and in the gas phase above carpets and on carpet components. Samples of four carpets were exposed to 100 ppb ozone. Emission rates of aldehydes and other organic compounds were measured from exposed and unexposed samples. Surface interactions of ozone with carpets produced C1−C13 n-aldehydes and several unsaturated aldehydes. Total aldehyde emission rates increased markedly with ozone exposure, from 1 to 70 μg m-2 h-1 for unexposed samples, to 60−800 μg m-2 h-1 during exposure. One exposed sample emitted large amounts of 2-nonenal (180−230 μg m-2 h-1), a compound with a low odor threshold. Material balance modeling of a residence with this high emitting carpet suggests (1) that the concentration of 2-nonenal would be well above its odor threshold even in areas with only moderate ambient ozone levels and (2) that odorous levels of 2-nonenal could persist for years. Reactions of ozone with gas-phase primary emissions from carpet significantly reduced the levels of 4-phenylcyclohexene and produced small amounts of branched ketones. Separately measured patterns of aldehyde emissions from ozone exposure of linseed and tung oils were similar but not identical to those observed from ozone-exposed carpets.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


Environmental Protection Agency
United States. Department of Energy

Keywords and Phrases

Aldehydes; Carpets; Ozone

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2002 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2002